Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review surveys current and proposed spam filtering techniques with particular emphasis on how well they work. The primary focus is on spam filtering in email, while similarities and differences with spam filtering in other communication and storage media - such as instant messaging and the Web - are addressed peripherally. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review examines the definition of spam, the user's information requirements and the role of the spam filter as one component of a large and complex information universe. Well known methods are detailed sufficiently to make the exposition self-contained; however, the focus is on considerations unique to spam. Comparisons, wherever possible, use common evaluation measures and control for differences in experimental setup. Such comparisons are not easy, as benchmarks, measures and methods for evaluating spam filters are still evolving. The author surveys these efforts, their results and their limitations.In spite of recent advances in evaluation methodology, many uncertainties (including widely held but unsubstantiated beliefs) remain as to the effectiveness of spam filtering techniques and as to the validity of spam filter evaluation methods. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review outlines several uncertainties and proposes experimental methods to address them. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review is a highly recommended read for anyone conducting research in the area or charged with controlling spam in a corporate environment.
Over 50% of known flaviviruses have been associated with human disease. The Flavivirus genus constitutes some of the most serious human pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. Flaviviruses are known for their complex life cycles and epidemic spread, and are considered a globally-emergent viral threat.
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