Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review surveys current and proposed spam filtering techniques with particular emphasis on how well they work. The primary focus is on spam filtering in email, while similarities and differences with spam filtering in other communication and storage media - such as instant messaging and the Web - are addressed peripherally. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review examines the definition of spam, the user's information requirements and the role of the spam filter as one component of a large and complex information universe. Well known methods are detailed sufficiently to make the exposition self-contained; however, the focus is on considerations unique to spam. Comparisons, wherever possible, use common evaluation measures and control for differences in experimental setup. Such comparisons are not easy, as benchmarks, measures and methods for evaluating spam filters are still evolving. The author surveys these efforts, their results and their limitations.In spite of recent advances in evaluation methodology, many uncertainties (including widely held but unsubstantiated beliefs) remain as to the effectiveness of spam filtering techniques and as to the validity of spam filter evaluation methods. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review outlines several uncertainties and proposes experimental methods to address them. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review is a highly recommended read for anyone conducting research in the area or charged with controlling spam in a corporate environment.
The supplementary protection certificate (SPC) prolongs the term of patents for pharmaceutical products for a maximum of five additional years, ie the certificate becomes effective at a time when the respective pharmaceutical is widely known on the market and thus generates the maximum revenue, which explains the enormous economic value of the SPC. The SPC's legal bases are two European SPC-Regulations. The SPC is based upon European or national patents. SPCs protect some of the most valuable products in the pharmaceutical industry where each day of additional protection may be worth millions of Euros. At the same time, the requirements for obtaining such protection, the scope of protection, etc are highly disputed and have been the subject of numerous decisions of the ECJ. There is only limited detailed literature on SPCs, not reflecting the economic relevance SPCs have obtained in recent years. German jurisprudence on SPCs is of special importance, as this has often been the basis for decisions of the ECJ. Further, the German market is one of the leading markets for pharmaceuticals and thus for SPCs. Thus, German case law is used to illustrate the comments. This book is addressed to patent attorneys, in particular in-house and external, working for pharmaceutical companies, and attorneys-at-law specialising in patent law, especially in Europe but essentially world wide.
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