Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review surveys current and proposed spam filtering techniques with particular emphasis on how well they work. The primary focus is on spam filtering in email, while similarities and differences with spam filtering in other communication and storage media - such as instant messaging and the Web - are addressed peripherally. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review examines the definition of spam, the user's information requirements and the role of the spam filter as one component of a large and complex information universe. Well known methods are detailed sufficiently to make the exposition self-contained; however, the focus is on considerations unique to spam. Comparisons, wherever possible, use common evaluation measures and control for differences in experimental setup. Such comparisons are not easy, as benchmarks, measures and methods for evaluating spam filters are still evolving. The author surveys these efforts, their results and their limitations.In spite of recent advances in evaluation methodology, many uncertainties (including widely held but unsubstantiated beliefs) remain as to the effectiveness of spam filtering techniques and as to the validity of spam filter evaluation methods. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review outlines several uncertainties and proposes experimental methods to address them. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review is a highly recommended read for anyone conducting research in the area or charged with controlling spam in a corporate environment.
Neither Free Trade Nor Protection provides a critical exploration of mainstream and alternative theories of international trade and presents original evidence of trade's consequences. It rejects the choice between openness and closure. Mainstream economists almost always support 'free trade' but their arguments for this are flawed and too often rely on a caricature of their opponents as simple-minded protectionists. Meanwhile, many critics successfully emphasize shortcomings of the orthodoxy but struggle to identify a more positive agenda, either seeing free trade as a desirable, if unachievable, end or equally simplistically blaming trade for international inequality. Both sides of the trade debate share much in terms of how they understand the objectives of national wealth and in how they overlook other economic processes and social questions. Bill Dunn's examination covers: * critical interrogation of both mainstream and heterodox theories * systematic evaluation of contemporary evidence * historical context * trade, restructuring and the crisis of the 2000s * economics as a social science Written in plain English, this book will appeal to students, researchers and political activists alike. It is an indispensible resource to those seeking a deeper understanding of alternative approaches to the mainstream theories of trade and economics.
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