Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review surveys current and proposed spam filtering techniques with particular emphasis on how well they work. The primary focus is on spam filtering in email, while similarities and differences with spam filtering in other communication and storage media - such as instant messaging and the Web - are addressed peripherally. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review examines the definition of spam, the user's information requirements and the role of the spam filter as one component of a large and complex information universe. Well known methods are detailed sufficiently to make the exposition self-contained; however, the focus is on considerations unique to spam. Comparisons, wherever possible, use common evaluation measures and control for differences in experimental setup. Such comparisons are not easy, as benchmarks, measures and methods for evaluating spam filters are still evolving. The author surveys these efforts, their results and their limitations.In spite of recent advances in evaluation methodology, many uncertainties (including widely held but unsubstantiated beliefs) remain as to the effectiveness of spam filtering techniques and as to the validity of spam filter evaluation methods. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review outlines several uncertainties and proposes experimental methods to address them. Email Spam Filtering: A Systematic Review is a highly recommended read for anyone conducting research in the area or charged with controlling spam in a corporate environment.
This book brings together the work of scholars from England, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States to examine the ways in which industrialized nations have used and are developing tax laws to help alleviate environmental problems. For each country, the contributors offer a thorough review of existing and proposed initiatives and an in-depth evaluation of their effectiveness. They also discuss the theoretical framework behind environmental tax initiatives, explain alternative systems to taxation, reveal problems in dealing with environmental concerns that are common to all of the countries studied, and suggest ways to more efficiently coordinate tax and environmental policies. Based on their research, the contributors conclude that the general tax systems of the United States and other countries unintentionally conflict with environmental policies and that no country has yet been able to adequately control automobile pollution, although some have had varying degrees of success in other areas. The volume begins with an introduction that presents a nontechnical discussion of the current economic thinking on environmental taxes and alternatives such as direct government regulation and granting polluters limited or tradable rights to pollute. The following chapters discuss each country in turn. Each chapter first examines the institutional framework of the country--central versus regional government, how legislation is enacted and executed, the distribution of authority over environmental matters, and important environmental policy goals. Next, the compatability of the tax system with environmental goals is analyzed. Finally, there is a thorough treatment of that country's environmental tax initiatives, including an in-depth assessment of their relative success or failure. Policymakers, lobbyists, economists, and attorneys will find Taxation for Environmental Protection enlightening reading.
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